Kyoto Carry-over Credits (NDC)

Policy Description

Kyoto carry-over credits are a carbon accounting measure by which nations count historical emissions reductions that exceeded previous international goals towards its current targets. The use of Kyoto carry-over credits to meet national greenhouse gas emissions targets is contentious as they undermine climate ambition by allowing targets to be met with "emissions reductions" that have already happened. At COP25 in 2019, it was reported that Australia was the only country in the world explicitly planning to use Kyoto carry-over credits. Climate Analytics find there is no legal basis for the use of carry-over credits under the Kyoto Protocol or the Paris Agreement.

InfluenceMap Query

Support of UN Climate Process

Policy Status

Under Consideration: Government has not definitely ruled out the use of Kyoto credits as of yet

Lobbying Overview

  • Of all the climate lobbying tracked between 2019-2020, around half corresponded to advocacy in favor of the use of Kyoto-carry-over credits, which would weaken the government’s ambition for 2030 emissions reductions
  • This advocacy was led primarily by industry associations, including Australian Industry Greenhouse Network and Minerals Council of Australia
  • Overall, there has been more lobbying in favor of not using the Kyoto credits, including from Origin Energy.
  • In 2019, BHP and Business Council of Australia both advocated for the use of Kyoto carry-over credits but appeared to change their policy position in 2020 and have since lobbied against their use.

Evidence Profile


Policy Progress

From 2015 to 2020, the Australian Government consistently supported the use of Kyoto credits to meet its 2030 federal emission reduction target of 26 to 28 per cent under the Paris Agreement. In December 2020, Australia appeared to soften in its support for the use of Kyoto credits, after Prime Minister Scott Morrison stated that he was “very confident” that Australia would not need to use Kyoto carry-over credits to meet its 2030 emissions targets. However, Australia's emissions projections are based on its Technology Investment Roadmap, which relies heavily on the scale-up of low-emission technologies. Australia has not definitively ruled out the use of Kyoto carry-over credits.

Entities Engaged on Policy

The table below lists the entities tracked by InfluenceMap which have publicly engaged with the policy. InfluenceMap tracks around 300 companies and 150 industry associations globally. Each entity links back to the entities’ full InfluenceMap profile, where the evidence of its policy engagement can be found.

Influencemap Performance BandOrganizationEngagement Intensity
D+BHP41Metals & MiningOceania
C-Origin Energy40EnergyOceania
D+Boral Limited8Metals & MiningOceania
CAustralia and New Zealand Banking Group10FinancialsOceania
C-Business Council of Australia48All SectorsOceania
E+Australian Petroleum Production & Exploration Association (APPEA)39EnergyOceania
E+Minerals Council of Australia (MCA)46Metals & MiningOceania
E+Australian Chamber of Commerce & Industry19All SectorsOceania
CAustralian Industry Group (Ai Group)53All SectorsOceania